iklan1

Perhatian : Pelancar roket air dan CD powerpoint slide show boleh di tempah sekarang….Sila hubungi saya untuk maklumat harga dan penghantaran - 0137394353/azmi.jaaffar@yahoo.com.my *******Bermula 1/1/2017 harga pelancar adalah RM150 tidak termasuk kos penghantaran, harap maklum .....Tempahan untuk tahun 2017 dibuka sekarang....

Jumaat, 25 Disember 2009

Roket h2o - kreatif dan menarik



gambar nie cg dapat dari salah satu lmn roket air, Boleh Cuba kalau berminat......yang penting anda kreatif...


Khamis, 24 Disember 2009

Jangka Spring (untuk mengeluarkan payung terjun)

Masalah yang selalu dihadapi oleh peserta2 pertandingan roket payung terjun ialah payung terjun gagal keluar dari muncung dan kembang di udara Projek yang sedang saya usahakan sekarang adalah merupakan salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah ini, iaitu dengan menggunakan satu alat yang dinamakan jangka spring untuk mengeluarkan payung dari muncung roket h2o. Idea projek ini diperolehi daripada pembacaan dari laman web.


Jangka spring (seperti gambar di atas) boleh didapati daripada permainan kanak2. Ada banyak jenis jangka spring dan yang terbaik ialah pilihan yang paling kecil dan ringan untuk mengurangkan berat roket h2o anda nanti.


Langkah seterusnya ialah keluarkan jangka spring dari mainan tersebut dan buatkan satu lubang yang kecil pada bahagian tombolnya. Masukkan besi klip kertas yang dipotong pendek ke dalam lubang tersebut seperti gambar di atas. Gamkan besi klip kertas tersebut dengan gam gajah (501) supaya tidak tertanggal dari lubang yang dimasukkan tadi.


Potong sekeping plastik tebal // plastik dari botol untuk dijadikan suis semasa pelancaran nanti. Plastik ini akan di masukkan bahagian hujungnya ke dalam jangka spring supaya ‘gear’ nya tidak dapat berpusing sebelum pelancaran dilakukan. Bahagian hujung yang satu lagi akan diikat pada pelancar. Plastik ini akan ditarik keluar dari ‘gear’ semasa pelancaran dan jangka spring ini akan berfungsi sepenuhnya apabila roket h2o meninggalkan pelancar. (lihat gambarajah di atas)



Bagaimana menggunakan jangka spring

Muncung roket h2o akan di ikat dengan 2 getah. Satu getah akan disambungkan dengan jangka spring dan satu lagi (yang lebih panjang) akan digunakan untuk menarik muncung tertanggal dari badan roket h2o.


Langkah pertama yang perlu dilakukan ialah menebuk 2 lubang bertentangan lebih kurang 3 cm dari hujung bawah pada muncung roket h2o. Ambil klip kertas dan bentukkannya menjadi huruf T. Masukan klip kertas tadi ke dalam lubang yang telah ditebuk dan tampalkan bahagian dalamnya dengan menggunakan ‘binding tape’.

Langkah kedua, ikatkan getah yang panjang pada bahagian bawah roket h2o// bhg ‘nozzle’. Letakkkan muncung pada badan roket h2o. Ikatkan getah panjang ini pada klip kertas pada muncung. Uji samada getah panjang ini boleh menarik muncung terpisah daripada badan roket h2o. Jika tidak dapat, pendekkan sedikit getah tersebut. Uji semula.


Langkah ketiga, lekatkan jangka spring pada salah satu sayap roket anda (Sayap yang anda bina mestilah kuat dan dilekatkan dengan kemas). Lekatkan muncung pada badan rorket h2o anda, Ikatkan satu benang pada getah yang sederhana panjang. Buat satu bulatan pada hujung benang untuk dimasukkan nanti pada besi klip kertas yang dilekatkan pada tombol. Kemudian Ikatkan getah tersebut pada satu lagi klip kertas yang bertentangan pada bahagian muncung. Tarik getah ini sehingga sampai kepada jangka spring. Laraskan masa yang diambil untuk memisahkan muncung dari badan roket h2o dengan cara melaraskan ketegangan getah yang disambung pada jangka spring iaitu dengan cara mengubah panjang benang.


Selamat mencuba…..cg akan uploadkan gambar2 yang berkaitan dengan jangka spring ini sedikit masa lagi…jangan lupa untuk selalu melawat laman blog ini.

.

Sabtu, 19 Disember 2009

Here are some great links that I came across, and specifically why I liked them. Please feel free to recommend other sites to me. contact me.

http://www.et.byu.edu/~wheeler/benchtop/gallery.php  Amazing high speed video (slowed down) of water rocket launches! Elsewhere on the site, great tips for getting useful video of launches, quirky ideas like putting a water balloon inside the bottle and some thrust curve math.

http://home.people.net.au/~aircommand/index.htm When you're ready for advanced water rocketry, this is the place to go. Sending video camperas up in rockets, splicing bottles together, great video instructions...it's all here;

http://waterocket.explorer.free.fr/index.html The Water Rocket Explorer site shows what happens when an engineer and his sons encounter water rockets. Not only is there is lots of practical information for building simple to complex (parachute) rockets, but also facinating tangential stuff like the section on rockets reaching escape velocity from the Earth. Truly inspired and high quality. And don't miss the research page http://waterocket.explorer.free.fr/research.htm which has slow-motion video clips, pressure/volume curves and links to useful data.

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/telescope/Rocketweb/Launcher.htm  Jay Morgan, Cubmaster of Pack 327 (Texas) alerted me to this free-thinking European site. I believe the person running it is James Hardy, but I have not been able to find any contact information. Instead of making a bump in the PVC pipe to make the pressure seal, he wraps PTFE tape (Teflon thread-seal tape)--not so it forms a big bump to jam the bottle against, but rather enough so the bottle neck fits fully over the tape. So you don't have to be quite so precise about where the bottle is on the pipe. However, I am getting some feedback that the Teflon tape rips after one or two launches. Also on this site, a "spring"--just a section of plastic bottle--that pushes up a little on the trigger collar. So it does not depend just on friction to keep from launching. It's a great idea which I will incorproate onto my design. Also instructions for sending up a tiny video camera, and resultant airial videos.

http://www.ast.leeds.ac.uk/~knapp/rockets/ The Univeristy of Leeds Water Rocket page has the most amazing images, both still and video. You can see the still pictures by scrolling down the home page. Click "Slow motion movies" or
http://www.ast.leeds.ac.uk/~knapp/rockets/rocketmovies.html to see these amazing sequences (also seen on the waterrocketexplorer site). Also check out the "Quick Time Movie of the first manned water rocket launch" or
http://www.ast.leeds.ac.uk/~knapp/rockets/1.mov Thanks to Dr. Johannes Knapp of Leeds U.

http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/pagrosse/h2oRocketIndex.htm The Water Rocket Index is a serious site by Paul Grosse that has everything up to and including recovery systems and aerial photography. Wow!

http://hazchem.smoke.com.au/~ic/water-rocket.html This is Ian Clark's water rocket site. Ian is the one who came up with idea of using cable ties to make a release mechanism.

The Wikipedia "water rocket" entry is very interesting. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_rocket

http://www.geocities.com/rocketroos/ You can tell by the name (...roos) they're from Australia. With Coke can rockets and multiple rockets, they are definately thinking "outside the box."

Jumaat, 18 Disember 2009

Khas buat Guru2 Penasihat....roket H2O

Nie ada pautan yang menarik utk di lihat oleh guru2 penasihat semua....

sila klik pautan di sini

semoga dapat membantu cikgu2 mengajar pelajar2 membina roket h2o yang baik.

Khamis, 17 Disember 2009

The first rocket made




"Arrow of Fire"

 People in China invented the world's first rockets in the first century A.D. These rockets were filled with an early form of gunpowder that the ancient Chinese named "black powder". When the black powder in the rockets was ignited flaming exhaust gas was generated. It exited from the bottom of the rocket tubes, propelling them into the sky. During the 1232 A.D. battle of Kai-Keng the Chinese fought the Mongols with these "arrows of flying fire".

Special thanks to water-rockets.com for this information


for more information see:


NASA Timeline of Rocket History
Calvin J. Hamilton: A Brief History of Rocketry

Rabu, 9 Disember 2009

H2O Rockets @ Maokil // Roket H2O @ Maokil

A simple rocket can be built of an empty Coke or lemonade or F&N plastic bottle and etc. Partly filled with water and pressurised air, the rocket can be blasted high up or horizontal in the air. The pressurised air expels the water, which in turn creates the thrust to accelerate the rocket, counteracted by air resistance and the weight of the rocket. Maximum speeds are up to 200 km/h and the world record height is more than 300 m!

Water Rockets are very educational and great fun for children (of all ages).

How it works, Find it on this blog.....
Have a Water Rocket event or Workshop at your School?

Contact: Azmi J (azmi.jaaffar@yahoo.com.my)

Water experiment // eksperimen isipadu air

Special thanks to the original author for this article. My friend give this article to me to publish it...if you know the author of this article pls...email it to me...

Water


We now have a water rocket that is aerodynamically sound. We know that we will be able to pump it up to a pressure of between 4 and 6 BarG (between 60 and 90 psig) and we can measure it. So, how do we know how much water to put in it?

We need to know its tare weight, capacity, diameter and nozzle dimensions to be able to work out how much water it will need for a flight with the greatest height.

We can measure its nozzle, body diameter and weight it empty to get its tare weight but we have changed its capacity so we don't know that any more - the volume of liquid it had when you bought it was not the same as its nominal capacity either and in addition, there has to be a certain amount of ullage (head space) so as to take into account the expansion of the liquid when it gets hot so that the bottle doesn't burst in the shop. All we can do is measure it and the best way to do that is as follows. . .

Weigh the rocket empty (you will need this for the computer model anyway). Fill it to the top with water and weigh it again. Take the former from the latter and you have your capacity (close enough) as, for the purposes of water rocketry, 1 gramme equals 1 cm³.

These figures were then fed into my computer model and the weights in the table below and graph on the right were calculated to be the optimum for the pressure range considering the diameters of the different rockets.

To put them into practice, put a piece of gaffer tape along the side of the rocket and weigh in the optimum amount of water. Mark on the gaffer tape where the water comes to, screw a top on, invert it and make another mark (in such a way that you will not be confused - possibly using an arrow pointing upwards). This will make life easier when in the field and you haven't got access to the scales.

If your rockets have tare weights or capacities that are different to these, you can use the above graph to work out roughly the right weight of water optimised for height - this assumes that the rocket capacity and diameter are roughly in proportion.

Selasa, 8 Disember 2009

Links // pautan menarik

Good site...for  science water rocket challenge...

http://www.npl.co.uk/educate-explore/water-rocket-challenge

Double Length Rocket // Roket gandadua @ lebih

 Di bawah ini ditunjukkan cara bagaimana untuk menambahkan panjang roket daripada satu botol menjadi 2 botol minuman bergas terpakai.....boleh dicuba jika mahu tp anda harus ingat semakin panjang roket h2o yang anda bina semakin berat roket h2o tersebut dan jarak mendatar penerbangan  @ jarak tegak penerbangan akan menjadi semakin kecil.

Gambar rajah di bawah cg dapat daripada laman web Mr Gary Ensmenger.
Give him a special credit for this valuerable picture....









Isnin, 7 Disember 2009

Rocket H2O -Tips For Students In Science Rocket Challenge // Tip berkaitan roket H20

Special thanks to the author....(I'm sorry....do not know, who wrote this article. I got this article from my friend)

1. Stiff fins are the best fins. Flexibility decreases the effectiveness of a fin.

2. To trace the bottle's shape on the fin material, place the bottle directly under a light source.

3. Place the grain of the fin perpendicular to the bottle. This will make the fin stiffer and stronger.

4. Do not sand the bottle prior to gluing. It will get you disqualified and is not necessary.

5. Best glues for fins: PL Premium - available at Home Depot or Lowes, Goop - available at most hardware stores, Shoe Gu - available at shoe stores and sporting good stores, 100% GE Silicone Glue - available everywhere. All hold well, PL Premium is the stiffest, probably the most toxic, Shoe Gu and Goop are both fairly stiff, GE Silicone is less toxic, but more flexible. Contact Cement or Rubber Cement can be used to glue on paper fins. You should be in a well-ventilated area and wear latex gloves when using PL Premium, Shoe Gu, and Goop. It will usually take fins about 2 hours to cure enough to put on
another fin and about 2 days before launching.

6. "Swing Testing" is a quick way to determine if a rocket has reasonable stability. This test is done by tying a string around the rocket at its CG and swinging the rocket around.

7. Fins cause very little drag and do not weigh very much. A non-stable rocket that is flying sideways is creating a lot of drag. Non stable rockets have a lot of problems with pre-deployment of their parachute.

8. The cost of non-vertical flight is tremendous. A flight that is 5 degrees off vertical can loose 10% of its potential altitude.

9. Parachutes are more efficient with more shroud lines. Shroud lines hold the shape of the parachute and keep air from burping from the chute.

10. Parachutes should be as large as possible while still meeting overall length requirements and efficiency standards.

11. Parachute efficiency is improved by using the correct shroud length. Shroud lengths should be between 1.2 to 1.5 times the parachute diameter.

12. The best parachute material that I have found is dry cleaner bags. If you request the bags used by commercial cleaner for drapes or wedding dresses you may find one large enough for your parachute.

13. The best material for shroud line is nylon upholstery thread.

14. How much water? 1/3 of the capacity of the bottle will get you close. Use simulator listed on page 4.

15. When humidity is low and there is no chance of rain, you can use talc to keep the chute from having static cling.

16. The best folding technique for passive deployment is to zig zag fold the cute, starting from the top to bottom. When you fold the chute to the shroud lines, gently make a couple of wraps with the lines. You want to use as few wraps as possible so that the chute will deploy quickly.

17. The parachute should be attached securely to the rocket. It can be glue or tied. If glued, you should reinforce the bond with fiberglass reinforced packing tape. This also applies to the cord that attaches the cone to the bottle.

18. Deployment at apogee and a quick opening parachute are essential to increasing hang time.

19. If the rocket arches through apogee and does not slow down, wind drag will not allow the cone and body to separate even with active deployment.

20. Make sure that your cone sits securely on the rocket. I have seen numerous rockets disqualified due to cones shifting during pressurization or by being blown off by the wind.

21. The rules no longer allow for a wind block to be used by a competitor to shield the rocket from wind gusts during launch.

22. Beware, bottles expand under pressure. The expansion can upset a cone if the rocket is not designed to deal with this problem.

23. You can design a cone that fits loosely on the bottle. It will need to be supported by a ring or pegs. Both pegs and rings (butter tub seal) can be glued to the rocket with PL Premium.

24. Many competitors use poster board paper or banner paper to make their cone.
See: http://hometown.aol.com/powerdeployment, for procedure to make a simple cone.

25. If you use pegs to sit the cone on, make sure to use Bass Wood (not balsa) and turn the grain so that the G-forces of take off will not cause the cone to cut through the peg.

26. Another simple method of controlling expansion and creating a ledge for the cone to sit on is to wrap fiberglass reinforced packing tape around the top of the bottle until it has created a ledge.

27. Practice many times in all conditions including rain.

28. Have a written procedure and follow it every time. The teams I coach follow step by step through their checklist everytime even though they know it by heart. Airline pilots and surgeons both use checklists, shouldn't you? Laminate your checklist!

29. How heavy should my rocket be? That is a good question. The weight that would give the rocket the best loft may not allow it to reach the highest altitude. Go for stability first, loft second, altitude third. Try to reach a good compromise.

30. How much air pressure do I use? Easy question, all that is allowed. The more stored energy, the higher you go.

31. Use this flight simulator to determine the best amount of water. http://homes.managesoft.com.au/~cjh/rockets/simulation/

32. Check the opening of your bottle, a standard piece of 1/2 inch, Schedule 40 PVC pipe through the nozzle of your rocket.  If it will pass through the opening, it will launch from any standard launcher.

33. With rocket designs where a tall cone sits loosely on the bottle, the cone mass can do little to correct an initial flight stability issue. Why? Because when the fins attempt to correct the instability, the rocket can bend in the middle where the cone sits on the bottle. If you notice that you are getting a lot of pre-deployments, you may attempt to move some of your cone mass toward the base of the cone or you may choose to shorten your cone.

34. Make sure that you have a waterproof box to store your rocket and supplies. Also make sure you have an umbrella to cover the rocket while staging and before launch. Bring rain gear for yourself. The last 2 years at nationals we have had intense rain and many rockets were damaged.

35. Try not to use paper, cardboard or wood components in the rocket. If you do, attempt to waterproof them.

36. Bring too much clothing. You don’t have to wear it, may want to. When cold or wet it is hard to concentrate.

37. Know the launcher that will be used at the event you are going to attend. This is a particular concern for rockets that have fins that are swept below the flange on the bottleneck. Many launchers including the typical "Bent Fork Launchers" and the NERDS launcher will not launch rockets with swept fins. If you plan to use a swept fin rocket, I recommend that you
contact the event supervisor or event director to determine what type of launcher will be used. In the past at nationals a launcher that is capable of launching all typical rocket fin configurations has been used, but it still doesn’t hurt to check.

38. I recommend a fin jig be used for installing fins with precision. A fin jig is a necessity when using slow set glues. You can see my fin jig at my rocket web site: http://hometown.aol.com/powerdeployment

39. To measure your water, build you own custom measuring device from a 1 Liter Bottle. Mark it for just the right amount of water for your rocket. This will help eliminate measuring mistakes.

40. Mark your rocket with the correct water level as a double check. If you are going to be launching off a launcher where you will have to tip your rocket, rather than the launcher tip ping for loading, always put in a little too much water. As you tip your rocket you will always lose a little water.
You can lift up on your rocket gently to let out a little water while on the pad. (Don't get too bent out of shape if  you don't have exactly the correct amount of water, a few ml of water will not make that much difference)


Bottle Rocket Resources
(Bottle Rocket Are Commonly Referred To As Water Rockets)


Recovery:

Vertical, Horizontal Systems http://hometown.aol.com/powerdeployment&Passive

Dave Johnson Air Flap http://dogrocket.home.mindspring.com/WaterRockets/

Gary Ensmenger - Balloon http://www.h2orocket.com/topic/balloon/balloon.html

Nerds Recovery Systems http://tc.unl.edu/rbonnstetter/rockets/recovery.html

Paul Grosse http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/pagrosse/h2orrecsys1.htm

Ulrich Hornstein http://home.t-online.de/home/u.hornstein/wr.htm

Aaron Allen - VDEN http://hometown.aol.com/a1allen/Aaronswaterrockets.html



Division C Backslider Recovery:

Robert Youens http://hometown.aol.com/powerdeployment

Always Brothers http://members.aol.com/petealway/srrg.htm

Ulrich Hornstein http://u.hornstein.bei.t-online.de/wr_backglide.htm



Links Site & Invaluable Sources For Information:

*Clifford Heath* (recommended) http://homes.managesoft.com.au/~cjh/rockets/links.html

A Good Science Olympiad Site http://www.scioly.org/eventpages/event.html



Launchers:

SO Nationals Launcher Last 2 Yrs: http://hometown.aol.com/waterrocketguy/solauncher.html



Simulator (Used to optimize variables)

Clifford Heath http://homes.managesoft.com.au/~cjh/rockets/simulation/



Great Book On Model Rocketry:

Model Rocketry by Timothy S. Van Milligan, available at hobby stores

Sabtu, 5 Disember 2009

Nose separates at apogee (muncung/nose cone terpisah pada puncak ketinggian)

Sila klik pautan di bawah

Pautan

Special thanks to the author.....

Artikel berkaitan dengan roket H2O


The "Coney"
Backslider Water Rocket

By

Robert Youens




The cone is 2.5 feet long and made from paper twisted into the cone shape. The paper I used was labeled for use as school book covers. It is 15 inches wide and 20 foot long. The cone is simply taped to the bottle with scotch tape.

Reason may indicate that the Center of Gravity is way to far back on this rocket for it to have stable flight. It was discovered years ago that in long skinny rockets the relationship of the Center of Gravity and Center of Lateral Area can be very different than the required one caliber (dimeter) distance of Center of Gravity ahead of Center of Lateral Area.

A fellow name Barroman mathmatically calculated a new point which has become know as the Barrowman Center of Pressure. In long skinny rockets with the Center of Gravity located behind the Center of Lateral Area, stable flight is still possible as long as the Center of Gravity is ahead of the Barrowman Center of Pressure.

This rocket will fligh well and will maintain vertical flight to apogee. At apogee, rather that nose over and head for the ground, the rocket slides downward tail first. At a point the fins catch the air and put the rocket into a horizontal recovery. This ballance is maintained by the angle of the fin. If the tail is lifted up too much the fins stall and the back of the rocket goes back into the horizontal position until the fins catch enough air to get back into the horizontal glide angle.

It is a beautiful thing to watch and a dependable form of recovery.





This rocket has 4 fins which are almost too much surface area to keep the Center of Lateral Area ahead of the Center of Gravity. When you think about it, another fin or larger fins add little weight, but the additional cross sectional area does dramatically move the Center of Lateral Area backward while the Center of Gravity stays in place. When the Center of Lateral Area gets behind the Center of Gravity you are almost insured a nose down attitude as the rocket progresses through apogee. You may find if you used three fins or smaller fins you would get a smooth recovery with a slightly steeper backward glide angle.


Special thanks to Mr Robert Youens for above article.

Jumaat, 4 Disember 2009

Artikel berkaitan dengan roket H2O yang mengandungi banyak maklumat yang perlu diketahui

Special thanks to the author : Johanna De Witte

BOTTLE ROCKETS


The following information is the basic format that I used for my bottle rocket. Due to difficulties in getting parts I had to modify my launch pad. The valve stem I used was from a Tire shop and it sat nicely in a 1/2 " hole on the launch pad. There are drawings on the web site listed below. Good Luck, Johanna DeWitte

copyright February 1997 by Brigham Rees. Copies may be made by educational institutions. Otherwise contact

Brigham Rees,

1408 Dominique,

Austin, Texas 78753

http://www.onr.com/tso/br_man.html

Safety First

Even bare bottle experiments can be dangerous, but a finely tuned rocket can reach speeds in excess of 150 miles per hour. Major league baseball pitchers pitch fastballs between 80 and 95 miles per hour (Bob Feller was clocked at 145 feet per second--99 MPH.). Imagine getting hit without (or with) a helmet at speeds of that magnitude. Cars can be dented, windows broken, roofs damaged. The good news is that with some precautions bottle rockets are relatively safe, despite their awesome power.

0. Equipment. Reliable equipment is absolutely critical. Using poor equipment can not only damage your bottle rocket, launcher, houses, cars, or other property, it can also damage people. A bottle rocket is danger and power in a pop bottle. See the appendix on equipment and make sure yours is up to standard. Don't launch until your equipment is good enough.

1. Adult Supervision. Although not a guarantee of better precaution than youth, adults have had more years to add to their alarm systems. However, anyone's alarms, bells, and whistles should be enough to at least pause a launch for more consideration. A sanity check should be made before any rocket is pressurized. If you don't check your stuff before pressurization, you will almost be guarantied of having to deal with a dangerous situation sometime. Adults should be able to deal with emergencies. They should also familiarize themselves and the students with the following guidelines:

2. Tools. Some rocket ideas may require using tools the students are not trained to handle safely. Watch the students' abilities with tools. Either training the students or doing the part of tool usage that they cannot do may be in order. (For their sake, only the unsafe parts should be done for them, or they will not learn as much). Although individual parts of the rocket may need adult help, the overall rocket should be made and assembled by the student.

3. Metals and sharp objects. This is obviously an alarm bell because a bottle can explode, misfire, or have an errant flight path that would cause someone to get hurt or maimed. In addition, a rocket which has excellent flight characteristics and a good flight trajectory on the way up, may become very dangerous on the way down-especially if a parachute doesn't exist or fails to deploy. (Excellent flight characteristics will mean the rocket comes down almost as fast as it went up). See the huge precaution of the next to last paragraph of Inertia in Flight.

4. Launch area. Although the size of the launch area can be as small as a front yard for no wind and bare bottle experiments, once good flight characteristics are achieved, the launch area will need to be clear for the size of a football field size. If parachutes are added to a good rocket (you will get tired of making disposable nose cones.), a half mile or more of fairly clear field space may be needed, depending on the size of the chute. In any case, nothing should be overhead of the launch. Period.

5. Observer. The adult should be free to be observing during every launch to check for safe and unsafe practices and conditions. Any launch should be stopped immediately if any suspicion of an unsafe condition is observed.

7. Before pressurizing. Someone other than the one who pinned the rocket should check it. Although the launch pad and clamp design included at the end of this has yet to have a misfire due to bad pinning, anything is possible.

8. While pressurizing. The rocket and pad should be observed by the adult and the launching student for the first sign of any problems. 2-liter soda-pop bottles which have no modifications to the water/pressure chamber should solid above 90PSI, but I won't guarantee them. Soda-pop bottles have a rumored minimum specification of 90PSI and a few are valid to 150PSI or more. Water bottles have no known specification. Some appear to be exactly like soda bottles, but I had a sun bleached 20-oz water bottle (unknown time in the sun) explode on me at 55PSI. Sharp shards from the bottom didn't hit anyone, but upon examination, if they had... Any bottles that have not been pressurized previously should have a containment box over them with 20 lbs. or more of weight on top of the box. The box should be heavy duty cardboard (like an appliance box, but only a few inches to a foot taller than the rocket on the launch pad. This prevents the rocket from turning potential energy into dangerous kinetic energy. Leaning over a pressurized rocket or fooling around with one are obviously invitations for injury. Parents won't like any injuries. Any rocket which has multi-pressure-chamber bottles joined in any manner should be pressurized in increments of 5PSI with wait times of 10 seconds between each increment--(pressurized in the containment box). These may be dangerously explosive. The first signs of problems at pressures above 35 PSI may not have enough action time between the observation and the resulting explosion to do anything. Safety goggles are recommended.

9. Problems while pressurizing. If a leak is detected during pressurization, a blowout may be eminent. Stop pressurizing immediately. Clear the area immediately. The leak may be with the launcher or with the rocket. If the leak is at the launch-pad clamp of the design specified in the rear, it may be adjusted carefully. Otherwise, go directly into a launch procedure at the current pressure. The leak should be fixed before launching again.

10. After pressurizing. All other activities should stop. Everyone should be facing the rocket without the sun in their eyes.. Permission to launch should be asked for, permission given, and a countdown started. Everyone should understand that until the blastoff is reached, the countdown can be stopped by anyone.

11. No one catches rocket parts after a launch. Bare bottles have no need to be caught, and other rockets have the possibility of good flight characteristics. They are dangerous on the way up or down.

12. Launch failure. I have never seen this happen with our launch pads. One book recommended the adult jiggle the rocket 3 with a long stick to cause it to release. Maybe a plastic bucket over the rocket would be better (hold on tight. During the first moments no kinetic energy level of danger has been reached, but loosing grip on the bucket may allow that to happen.). Some other procedure may be better still. I have no experience with this and don't believe it happens with this launch pad design, but I welcome inputs.

Up In ;Smoke: Money

The glamour of bottle rockets is that they are something fun to do with an item that is normally trash or, at best, recyclable material. It is possible to spend a lot of money for fancy parts for rockets, but we have achieved best-of-class results from refuse items. An open eye while looking at trash, packaging material, etc. will provide phenomenal results using plastic material that is normally thrown away. After this has been achieved, you will know what a few dollars may possibly achieve towards the super-phenomenal. Don't send your money up in rocket vapor. The most expensive items we have spent money on so far are the launch pad and air compressor. You would be wise to do likewise. See the equipment appendix.

Work and Energy

What makes a bottle rocket fly? (Water and Air Pressure)

If some water and air pressure works, will a lot of water and-or air pressure work better? (Yes and no.)

The water has no magic. It is just a convenient material to push out the bottom of a bottle. Bottles without any water will still fly, just not as far. Adding water gives us a much larger transfer of mass as well as a pressurized container. Let's look at the bottle as the water escapes. We will look at the first little piece that comes out. (You are right, it flows out smoothly, not in pieces, but if we make our pieces small enough we get down to the molecule level.) But I can't draw pictures that small, so we will look at bigger pieces.



A. When the first piece of water comes out of the rocket at a tremendous velocity, it has an equal and opposite reaction on the rocket mass (including other water). But since the other stuff is so big, the little mass only causes a small velocity change to the whole mass. The other possibility is that it could have a full reaction on a singular piece of the large mass. That would involve a small piece pumping up through the water at a high velocity. Imagine a small piece hitting the top inside of the rocket at full force. In all reality, this idea of what happens is more realistic since water is fluid. But the water friction, viscosity and air pressure on the water mass transfer the velocity to the whole mass. Viscosity is how &127;sticky&127; the fluid is with itself. Honey is more viscous than water.

B. After the first little masses have left, 2 things are happening. The big mass is beginning to pick up speed. As it does, the little masses are already traveling in the up direction, so their down velocity coming out of the bottle is less. This is their relative velocity with the rocket. In addition, as more water escapes, the air volume gets bigger. So the pressure on the water decreases in proportion to the increase in volume. This has a direct bearing on the question of whether a lot of water (D.) would be better than a little.

C. As the last water leaves, it is approaching a one-to-one mass transfer with the water left behind. Only the weight of the bottle prevents it from that ratio. And the force imparted may still be very high if the proper water ratio was used in the beginning. 4

D. If the bottle is filled almost full, the amount of air volume needed to get a high pressure is very small. And as the air expands as the water leaves, the pressure drops dramatically. This is still an interesting experiment to do, and has interesting results.

Determining the best water volume. Experiment # 1:

Since we want to determine the best water volume, we must only vary water volume. We can check our results by doing the experiment on another bottle. The first set of experiments might be done using a 2-liter bottle pressurized at 75PSI. A second set might be done using a 20-oz. bottle. We want to know which one reaches a maximum height. We could use a sighting method to determine height, but the best result will be timing the bare bottle from the moment it is launched to the moment it hits the ground.

Typical bare bottle times for a two liter bottle at 75PSI are in the 5 to 6 second range for optimal water volume. We simply put a mark and its number with a permanent marks-a-lot on the side of the bottle before each launch. Then you can go back and number other lines after you see the probable best volume.

Newton's Laws of motion: Mass transfer .vs. Gravity

Once the ideal volume of water for the best thrust .vs. mass transfer ratio has been found, it would be nice to know what forces are acting on the rocket in order to optimize performance.

The sum of all the forces on any object equals zero, so Fv + Fg + Fr = 0. This section will be completed later.

Fins in the Air Stream

It would now be great to begin improving the rocket performance. The first thing the students invariably suggest is to install fins. We began with paper fins, then went to paper with lamination over them. Then came cardboard fins, then cardboard with lamination over them. We devised a method of marking our bottle with perfectly vertical lines which were used as guides to have highly tuned fins. Rockets still tumbled tremendously in the air stream. This was obviously not yet the answer to good flight.

In our fin quest, we discovered a very convenient and cheap fin material that is easy to cut and attach. The plastic in which many store items are packaged is a fairly tough plastic that must be cut with scissors to get the part out of the package. Usually there is a small side and a much larger side at right angles to it. The right angle makes it easy to tape it to the rocket. Duck tape works, but clear packing tape can give a clean smooth edge. A little finesse with the tape yields beautiful fins. This is even easier than the 5-minute epoxy method we originally used with plastic fins. But since this is not yet the answer to good flight, why bother mentioning it now? Because it is time for experiment number 2.

Cut fins and tape them onto the bare bottle, then do a time test. More importantly, do an observation test. I have yet to see a bottle that performs any better with only fins attached, but who knows, maybe someone will surprise me. If it does, share your fin design with me. In any case, fins aren't yet the answer, so rip them off and proceed to experiment #3.

Inertia in Flight

Experiment number 3 involves a wooden meter stick or other thin &127;pole&127; to which you tape some large object. It should not be large enough to bend or break the stick when the taped object is on top and the bottom of the stick is on the floor. It should be as heavy as (or heavier than) a large apple. See the diagram. Now get the students to guess whether it is easier 5 to balance the stick with the weight on their finger, or the bottom of the stick on their finger. The mind naturally moves toward the big end down. Now let them try it.

This is a quick fun experiment of inertia. Your hand is racing to move either the stick or the weight before gravity can get past you. Now ask yourself. Which is easier to move: your dad's car in neutral or a little tricycle? The car is very massive and takes more effort, even though its rolling friction is more efficient than the tricycle. The reason is called inertia. So it takes more effort for you to move the heavy object, and gravity can move the yardstick rather easily. But if you let gravity try to move the heavy object and leave yourself with the easier job of moving less mass, you can easily outperform gravity. Now you know how a circus acrobat can balance a man on a chair on his head. And the heavier the man, the easier it gets (up to the point where the man on the bottom gets crushed, anyway).

So what does this have to do with our rocket? We are trying to balance it in the air stream. This is why spears have a big heavy head on the front and a relatively thin staff behind them. This is why arrows have arrowheads. Get the big guy moving and the rest will trail behind.

We can actually find out how balanced our rocket is by finding the center of mass in relation to the &127;center of pressure&127;. The next experiment must now move to a football size field. No one can get in the way of the rocket coming down. Nothing should be on the football field that can be dented, broken, or destroyed.

Put a small handful of clay on the top end of a bare bottle rocket. (The top end of a bottle rocket is not the nozzle end.) Shape it as symmetrically as you care to. Alternately, tape a small handful of dirt onto the end of the bottle. Blast it off. It should bring some form of stability to your rocket, although probably not a perfect result that would be desired. The tail end (nozzle end) probably began oscillating in the wind, but never swung to the top side of the now heavy top end. Now you have managed to orient it into the wind, what can be done to keep it straight so it doesn't oscillate?

Yes, bring out the largest fins you made and tape them on again. Six inches is a large enough fin, but not the optimum size. Use a smaller pressure of 40 or 45 PSI, because poor fin design makes for rockets that zig and zag like balloons and may be very dangerous. Check the wind. If there is anything more than a whisper, move your launch closer toward the windward side of your &127;football field&127;. Do not launch in heavy winds. For this launch, everyone should be paying strict attention to the rocket and be able to keep it in sight throughout the entire flight. This rocket will go 5 to 10 times higher than any rocket you have launched. It will come down almost as fast as it went up and can dent cars, break windows, damage houses, and maim people. From here on out you must not launch your rockets anywhere but clear areas larger than football fields.

Now go and experiment with fin sizes. Find out how small they can be and still be effective. Do they need to be bigger in length or width? Neither? Two fins? Three fins? Four fins? More fins? The answers fit within the laws of flight, but you will be required to find these on your own. Too small a fin causes a balloon zig/zag kind of flight; too large a fin drags too much head wind if even slightly misaligned, and always catches the wrong amount of side wind.

Velocity Calculations and Height

Now you will be wanting to know just how high that rocket went. We will assume it has virtually no air resistance. If your round-trip time exceeded 10 seconds for a one bottle rocket at 75PSI, you are close enough. Calculations will be made over the distance traveled coming down from the top. Only gravity affected the rocket, so it is a constant acceleration problem. Suppose your flight was 10 seconds round trip (up and down). We can only calculate from the peak of flight down, since that is the distance gravity moved the rocket by itself. So gravity had a &127;pull&127; time t = 5 seconds on the rocket.

distance: y = (1/2)gt**2 ; g = 9.8meters/sec**2

y = (1/2)(9.8meters/sec**2)(5sec)**2

y = (4.9meters/sec**2)(25sec**2) = (4.9meters)(25)

y = 122.5 meters = 401.9 feet 6

velocity: v = gt = (9.8meters/sec**2)(5 sec) = 49meters/sec = 160.8 feet/sec = 109.6miles/hour

As promised, this rocket will fly faster than a baseball form a major league pro pitcher. Now let's see how trigonometry compares with calculations.

Height from Trigonometry

Trigonometry in this case is simply a tangential calculation. We need to step back 300 feet from the launch site sideways from any wind. Otherwise our angles will carry an error of windage. A protractor can be used to site the rocket at the top of flight and find the height angle at 300 feet. Since the rocket slows to zero velocity at the top of flight, then accelerates with our tuned design, this will be much easier than with bare bottles or finned-only bottles. Those rockets stop much more abruptly due to misalignment with the air stream.

Only the part of the protractor that goes from 0 to 90 as shown is needed. If your protractor doesn't number like this, you can subtract your reading from 90degrees to get the height angle. Or use the co-tangent instead of the tangent. So in our example time of 10 seconds of flight, the height was 401.9 feet. So the angle we should measure will have a tangent = 401.9feet / 300 feet = 1.33967. This angle is about 53degrees, so if we had made an observation of 53 degrees we could calculate the height:

tangent 53 degrees = 1.327 = y/x = y/300feet , y = (1.327)(300feet) = 398 feet

If we had been off by 3 degrees (and measured 50 degrees) when we sighted, the calculations would be made by looking up the tangent of 50 degrees either in a trigonometry table or by using a scientific calculator:

tangent 50 degrees = 1.1918 = y/x = y/300feet , y = (1.1918)(300feet) = 357.5 feet

The amount of error can be lessened with larger protractors or smaller tangent angles. Stepping back far enough to keep the angle under 30 degrees will lessen the amount that a site error affects the calculation. This is because the tangent has smaller increments at those angles.

Hang Time

Increasing height is a big challenge, and you will want to experiment with nose cones as well as the fins and &127;spearhead&127;. Nose &127;cones&127; can be an form of symmetry: round, cone, split point, ... Cutting either nozzle end or the bottom end of bottles is a valid thing to experiment with. Taping nose weight inside them is an easy thing to do. Use tape to balance the nose &127;cone&127; and the amount of nose weight until the balance point you have discovered is correct. Then tape the weighted nose cone down solidly to the rocket. The challenge will be to find a nose cone/weight that provides a great round-trip time. But soon after getting the rocket to time well, you will get tired of crashing nose cones with each flight. Finding a way to put a parachute on it and maintain rocket dynamics will be a challenge. Usually this involves making a nose cone that will come off at the top of flight (and not before), when the rocket changes direction. And inside that nose cone would be something to return the rocket to earth without wrecking the nose cone. Finding a way to put a parachute in it, maintain rocket dynamics, and not deploy the nose cone too early will be a challenge. Most of our problems with nose cones come from having the cone deploying early or having it throw our rocket dynamics off balance. Maximum air pressure may not be best for your nose cone design. A proper nose cone and parachute will not throw the rocket off course nor pop off before normal peak height. The gauntlet is down. Let the quest begin.

But I suppose you would like a few hints about parachutes. When I was a kid with Moses, we used to take dry cleaner bags, split them squarely from the large opening on the bottom to the shoulder with a smooth pass of sharp scissors. Then we 7 folded them in half diagonally. This allowed for an easy guide to cut a square. Cutting the corners off equally yielded an octagon. This is a good parachute start. Checking into real parachutes and determining how to duplicate them in very thin plastic is more design work the students will be able to jump into. And then improving them for bottle rockets will be the next challenge.

Toward New Heights

When you reach for new heights, you will probably want to try to hook more than one bottle together to reach for the stars. Although this is tempting, I would like to tell you that I have seen a one bottle rocket go almost as high as 2-bottle rockets. Getting a good rocket flight is more important than 2-bottles. Now if you have plenty of time left to mess around with 2-bottles, the cautions are simple. I have yet to see a rocket that was cut on the outside cylinder hold up to 75PSI. I have heard rumors, but actual proof is lacking. I have seen 4 different successful versions of rockets that have been joined end to end in some fashion. All of them had mechanical means of joining the bottles, with another method of sealing the chambers. I have not yet seen a successful joint based solely on glue.

Now for safety concerns. Never pressurize a joined chamber without the new bottle containment box mentioned in safety rule #8. Pressurize it to 85PSI and wait 5 minutes. If it doesn't explode, tilt the pad over sideways with someone holding the containment box in place over the pad. Unfasten the air hose and release some of the pressure. Tilt the box back upright and carefully remove the containment box. Now you may launch. If the rocket works properly and doesn't crash (the parachute works right), you may perform future launches without doing a pressure test. After any crash, check the rocket, then do a containment test before putting it back in service.

Equipment Appendix

Air pumps: A handheld bicycle pump with a built-in pressure gauge runs anywhere from $40 to $80. We have found a sealed cell battery operated pump that hold up very well at Walmart. A Campbell-Hausfeld portable air compressor launched 60 rockets at our state tournament, then worked every Saturday for the next 9 weeks for 3 to 7 launches. The only caution is that it is powered by a sealed cell lead-acid battery. Unlike ni-cad batteries, they don't have memories, so recharging them too soon is not a problem. Running on low charge too long is a problem and can short out the battery cells. This unit ran about $40 to $60, depending on the model. The rocker switches were the weakest part of the design. I wound up popping the pump switch out after it broke and simply held the wires together on the weekend it broke. I put in longer wires and a push-button switch. Not good for a 3-minute tire inflation, but fine for a 15 second rocket pressurization. The rocker switches may have been replaced with better slide switches since then.

Launch Pads: We took the information from the Nationals Coaches Manual and Rules page and did some ingenious modifications. We used a plastic short rework electrical box, turned it upside down, and used an adjustable hole cutter to cut a 1-3/4-inch hole in it. This provided the ability to slip the rocket pin yoke under the hole edge, then wiggle it into the holes without any difficult struggle. One of our coaches suggested adding an o-ring to the valve stem. This helps provide an easier seal. Additionally, a custom valve stem (the ones used for Mag wheels) was used as the valve stem. This gave a further advantage. With a little adjustment to the washer nut, the o-ring tension could be made to just the right amount. The valve stem could then be fitted to the bottles right side up. When the bottle was turned upside down, none of the water leaked out even if the valve stem was let go of. This makes water measurements very accurate, and allows for easy guiding of the rocket over a launch guide rod if desired. The launch platform size is not specified, and when it is built large enough and passive restraints are used, it becomes stable enough to have no need of being staked down to the ground.

Assembly time of all components is about 4 to 6 hours. Mass production cuts that down somewhat. Parts alone run about $7-$9. Completed launch pads can be obtained for $25 from the authors (unpainted). (Not including shipping.) I have sold 7 launchers at the 1996 Cen-Tex Regional Tournament, and am just publishing this paper, so I haven't yet had to determine how much it would cost to ship the pad. My guess would be between $6 and $10. Paint $5 extra. Specify or sample color.

If you are ambitious, here are my plans as complete as I can get them:

Cut a piece of 3/8 inch plywood. I built the first platforms 24inches by 24inches. For that size, I cut four 2inch by 2inch white pine studs to lengths of 22-1/2inches. Successful pads have also been cut 24inches by 18inches. (Cut two 2x2inch studs to 16-1/2inches, and two to 22-1/2inches.) The smaller pads seem to be as stable during launch as the larger sizes. I drilled and screwed the 2x2's to the platform and each other as shown, using &127;yellow&127; wood glue liberally in all the joints. You can also use Elmer's white glue. The glue makes the launcher more solid, for more reliable launches. Refer to the next page for a better visualization. I used 3inch &127;drywall&127; screws in the 2x2 corners, and 1-1/2inch drywall screws to hold the top of the pad to the 2x2's. Drilling 3/32inch holes for the screws prevents splitting the wood. Drywall screws aren't necessary, but drilling appropriate holes for nails also prevents splitting.

A plastic &127;rework&127; type electrical box is used for the launch site. It measures 2-1/2 x 3-1/2 inches x 1-1/4 inch deep. Two 5/16inch mounting tabs stick out on each long end. The ones I can get here are all made from blue PVC plastic. I'll call it a bluebox from now on, even though yours may be a different color. When the launch pad is dry (an hour should do), center the bluebox from side to side, but within 3 inches of one end of the platform. Make sure it is &127;squared&127; with the edges. (Meaning that each edge of the bluebox is parallel to each edge of the platform.) Draw on the pad around the bluebox, and draw a circle inside all four mounting tabs. Set the bluebox aside. On the pad, draw a diagonal from one of the mounting tab circle marks to the opposite mark. Then draw a diagonal from the a third mark to the last opposite (fourth) mark. Where the two diagonals cross is the center hole where the valve stem will go through the pad. Drill it with a 5/8inch bit. Drill the four mount tab holes with a 9/64th inch bit. However, you may find it easier to drill one hole; screw the blue box down with a 10-24 by 3/4inch screw through the pad wood (getting it started may be a little hard, but should not be too hard.); finally drilling the next holes using the bluebox as a hole guide, screwing each down in turn. If you are careful, you really don't need nuts on the back side of the wood as the wood will form sufficient &127;treads&127; to easily hold the 75PSI.

Now a 1-7/8inch hole must be cut in the bottom of the bluebox. Refer again to the next page. Depending on your hole cutter, the hole that comes out can be used in the valve stem assembly later. The side holes for the locking/release pin should be drilled so as to just barely miss the bottom of the blue box. They are 1-1/4inches center to center. Use a 1/4 inch drill and a round file to give them a smooth clearance of the 1/4 inch &127;locking/release&127; rod. Usually 1/4 inch rod comes in 3 or 4 foot lengths. Cut a foot of it, bend it carefully without pliers into a U shape. If you use pliers, you will leave scars on the rod that will not allow a smooth pull. I drilled a 3/8inch hole in a 2x4 stud and used the hole to bend with. As you start to complete the U, you will want to use a pop bottle to help get the proper diameter of the U. (Bend the last part around the pop bottle neck.) Work the U until it slides smoothly in and out of the bluebox locking holes (that are 1-1/4 inch center to center). You will probably want to file the U ends until they are round enough to smoothly enter the bluebox.

Now for the valve stem. Buy a straight chrome Hi-performance valve stem (They usually come blister-packed in a box of four.) Western Auto sells them for about $5.00 a box. They are used for chrome or Mag (&127;high performance wheels). We will not need the bottom rubber washer. Take off the other washer as well. It should have a &127;lip&127; on it. Cut it off as carefully as possible without cutting the surface it is on. It is now a flat washer. Now put the metal washer on the stem, followed by the flat washer you cut. Push them all the way to the top. You will need a metal fender washer with a 7/16inch hole, or the hole cut from the bluebox with a 7/16inch center hole. Use it as a pattern to cut a piece of an old inner tube. A standard paper hole punch will punch a sufficiently large hole in the inner tube. Stretch the inner tube over the valve stem, working it up all the way up to the flat washer. Put on the &127;fender&127; washer (or bluebox hole &127;washer&127;). Screw on the valve stem nut. Now comes the O-ring. Any hardware store should have these. Inside diameter is 9/16inch. Outside diameter is 3/4inch. They usually come in a box of six. They can pop off during launch, so get a box. Work it onto the top of the valve stem over the high-performance metal washer onto the flat rubber washer. This should now fit into a pop bottle very snugly. If not, loosen the valve stem nut a little. If you fill a bottle half-way with water and put the valve on tight, it should hold all 9 the water in the bottle when you turn the bottle upside-down. If not, tighten the valve stem nut a little until it does. Now you can do accurate experiments with water quantities. You should be able to lower the whole assembly (with a bottle rocket on the stem) into the bluebox, and clamp it to the pad with the U lock/release pin.

Now for safety. Learning a carefully aimed but swift pull might not result in any accidents from the U-pin hitting shins or other body parts, but a restraint would be advisable. A 2x2 stud secured to the top of the pad on the opposite end of the launch bluebox will do. Drill a 9/16inch hole towards the top side and smooth it out so it won't wear the rope out. Or make a passive restraint from two large strips of inner tube about 3 foot long each. screw each to opposite corners of the end away from the bluebox site. These allow you to not need to put stakes in the ground in the pull direction of the pad to guarantee that the box doesn't get pulled into the rocket on a good hard pull. (The solid 2x2 stud will catch the rope and U-pin solidly, and can pull the pad into the rocket). Inner tube strips will be used at Texas State Tournament 1997.

One last requirement. Unless you like building pads, take the bluebox off now. Paint the entire wood surface with high gloss outdoor latex paint. (It sheds very well). Let it dry for 2 days, then mount the bluebox again. May I suggest a half-pint of your school color. Happy launching.

If this sounds complicated, you may contact the author, or see him at one of the Texas tournaments about buying one pre-built. I do have water bottle launch pads. Since these are largely used by schools who prefer to paint it their school colors, the launch pad will be unpainted and should be painted in a good exterior gloss latex paint (or other good water-proof coating) before using. Otherwise it WILL warp. If the order request comes on school letterhead with a photocopy of a 1998 Science Olympiad Coaches Manual cover, the cost is $25 plus $5 shipping. Otherwise, it is $30 plus $5 shipping (continental U.S.). I am not in a business, so I cannot do charge card stuff.

You may order a launch pad by sending check or

money order to:

Brigham Rees

1408 Dominique

Austin, TX. 78753

Current supply will determine speed of delivery.

Khamis, 3 Disember 2009

Pautan laman web sistem 'recovery' roket H2O

Sila klik pauatan di bawah untuk maklumat lanjut


Rocket Recovery

Air Flap Chute Release
Recovery Systems
Tomy Timer
Squashed Balloon
Slipstream Deploy
The Chute

special thanks to  :
http://thehowzone.com/how/Water_Rockets/11

for the links above.

Selamat mencuba..

tq

azmi j

Hukum Newton yang berkaitan Roket H2O

NEWTON’S LAWS
Newton’s Laws are from: (reprinted with permission of the author)
http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/5413/science.html







Newton’s Laws are from: (reprinted with permission of the author)
http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/5413/science.html

Isnin, 9 November 2009

Gambar2 perbengkelan yang baru dimuat naik.

Buat semua peminat roket h2o, nie cg dah muat naikkan gambar2 yang diambil semasa perbengkelan di tiga tempat berasingan pada tahun ini.

1. Program penggalakkan sains SK Bukit Hampar, Segamat

2. Perbengkelan roket h2o kali ke 2 - aktiviti selepas PMR

3. Perbengkelan roket SK Maokil 2 - Aktiviti selepas UPSR

Gambar semasa pertandingan roket h2o jemputan kali pertama smk maokil akan cg muatnaik kan sedikit masa lagi....


tq

Rabu, 4 November 2009

Contoh Laporan Pertandingan Teknologi Pelancaran Roket 2009

Kepada sesiapa yang berminat untuk mendapatkan laporan penuh pertandingan teknologi pelancaran roket h2o jemputan maokil kali pertama 2009

sila muat turun disini


tq

Selasa, 3 November 2009

Ujikaji......eksperimen....

Ada ramai yang bertanyakan cikgu bagaimana untuk memghasilkan satu roket sasaran yang baik (setiap kali pelancaran memasuki sasaran 'eye's bull')....jawapannya adalah ujikaji/eksperimen....

Sebelum anda membuat eksperimen, tentukan dahulu apakah pembolehubah yang ingin anda manipulasikan, tetapkan pembolehubah yang dimalarkan dan tentukan pembolehubah yang akan bergerakbalas (sama seperti anda melakukan eksperimen dalam subjek sains)

Sebelum anda menentukan pembolehubah, anda perlulah mengetahui apakah faktor2 yang mempengaruhi jarak penerbangan roket h2o/jarak sasaran. Antara faktor yang boleh difikirkan adalah :

1.Bentuk roket
2.Berat roket
3.Isipadu air yang akan digunakan
4.sudut sasaran (30,35,40,45....dll)
5.jenis pelancar
6.jarak pelancar dan sasaran
7.Tekanan yang dikenakan (cth 40 psi,50 psi, 60psi....dll)

Setelah itu, tetapkan apakah pembolehubah yang akan dimanipulasi dalam eksperimen anda (cth: isipadu air yan digunakan) dan juga apakah faktor yang akan bergerakbalas (cth: jarak sasaran)

Jika faktor isipadu air yang dimanipulasikan dan jarak sasaran sebagai pembolehuabah yang bergerakbalas telah dipilih, maka faktor2 lain seperti bentuk roket,berat roket,sudut sasaran,jenis pelancar perlulah ditetapkan (pembolehubah yang dimalarkan)

Buatlah hipotesis yang bersesuaian sepertimana anda telah belajar dalam subjek sains.
Kemudian lakukan eksperimen bagi menguji hipotesis yang telah anda buat.
Setiap kali eksperimen dibuat rekodkan data yang diperolehi....











Tarikh Isipadu Air Jarak
Sasaran
Catatan


Ini lah kunci kejayaan bagi membina roket h2o yang sentiasa memasuki 'eye's bull'

Perbengkelan Roket H2O di SK maokil 2



Pada 2/11, cg dan 10 orang pelajar ting 3 2009 telah di undang ke SK Maokil 2 bagi mengajar pelajar2 tahun 6 membina roket h2o masing2. Aktiviti berjalan dengan lancar dan pelajar2 tahun 6 SK Maokil 2 dapat menyaipkan 2 jenis roket h2o, sasaran dan paracut dengan dibantu oleh 10 orang pelajar ting 3.



Tahniah cg ucapkan kepada pelajar2 thn 6 SK Maokil 2 kerana begitu bersungguh2 menyaipkan roket masing2 selama 3 jam lebih perbengkelan berlangsung. Tidak lupa juga, cg ucapakan terima kasih kepada Guru Besar dan pihak pentadbiran SK maokil 2 kerana menjemput cg untuk mengadakan perbengkelan roket kepada pelajar2 thn 6 sebagai aktiviti selepas peperiksaan UPSR 2009. Ucapan terima kasih juga diberikan kepada cg roslee dan cg haslizan yang bersama2 cg sepanjang perbengkelan tersebut berlangsung.





Pada pukul 12:00 tgh aktiviti pelancaran dijalankan bagi kedua2 roket h2o dijalankan.
Semua kumpulan berjaya menerbangkan roket sasaran lebih kurang 100 m. Walaubagaimanapun bagi roket paracut hanya 2 kumpulan sahaja yang roketnya berjaya mengembangkan paracut. Kumpulan lain mengalami masalah paracut samada paracut koyak semasa pelancaran ataupun tidak berjaya keluar daripada kon.





Secara umumnya, objektif perbengkelan ini telah berjaya dicapai bagi melatih pelajar2 membina roket h2o paracut dan sasaran.

Tahniah sekali lagi kepada pelajar2 tahun 6 dan guru2 yang terlibat....

semoga aktiviti ini dapat merancakkan lagi minat pelajar2 dalam bidang sains dan teknologi dan memperkembangkan roket h2o di daerah segamat dan malaysia...

Isnin, 2 November 2009

Contoh kertas Kerja Pertandingan Teknologi Pelancaran Roket

Kepada cikgu2 @ sesiapa sahaja yang berminat untuk menganjurkan pertandingan teknologi pelancaran roket ini ada contoh kertas kerja yang ingin saya kongsi bersama-sama. Kertas kerja ini dibuat semasa saya menganjurkan pertandingan jemputan kali pertama smk maokil yang lepas.

Ingin muat turun.......Sila dapatkan di sini

Sabtu, 31 Oktober 2009

Utamakan Keselamatan

Ada beberapa perkara yang perlu diberi perhatian khusus, antara nya



1)Selepas angin dimasukkan ke dalam roket h2o, anda dilarang sama sekali untuk berada berdekatan dengan roket h2o bagi mengelakkan kemalangan.



2) Semasa angin sedang dipam ke dalam roket air, pastikan rakan anda tidak melihat roket tersebut dari bahagian atas (pelancaran roket payung terjun)



3) Semasa angin sedang dipam ke dalam roket air, pastikan rakan anda tidak melintas dibahagian hadapan roket tersebut pelancaran roket sasaran)

Jumaat, 30 Oktober 2009

Bahaya kon (nose cone) semasa pelancaran roket paracut







Gambar di atas menunjukkan resiko yang dihadapi oleh peserta2 pelancaran roket paracut. Pastikan anda semua melihat ke atas semasa pelancaran dibuat dan perhatikan di mana kon akan jatuh untuk mengelakkan sebarang kecederaan.....

Sebagai langkah keselamatan, hanya yang akan melancarkan roket mereka sahaja yang dibenarkan berada berhampiran pelancar. Pastikan penonton berada 5-10 m dari tapak pelancaran.

Khamis, 29 Oktober 2009

Ada yang nak beli Pelancar....??

Ada permintaan drpd guru2 penasihat/pengiring daerah segamat untuk membeli pelancar yang cg gunakan semasa kejohanan peringkat daerah dan kejohanan smk maokil jemputan baru-baru ini.

Untuk makluman semua yang berminat, cg ada menjual pelancar tersebut pada harga RM150 seunit dan sumbangan yang anda berikan akan dimasukkan ke dalam akaun kelab roket dan rekacipta smk maokil. Harap maklum....sebarang tempahan boleh melalui email cikgu : azmi.jaaffar@yahoo.com.my


-SOLD OUT-

-SOLD OUT-

-SOLD OUT-
Untuk 20 unit terawal Diskaun RM80, harga promosi RM70 sahaja harap maklum. Siapa cepat dia dapat.....ler... (HARGA PROMOSI SUDAH TAMAT)


BENTUK PELANCAR ROKET DI ATAS SUDAH TIDAK DIJUAL- SILA LIHAT PELANCAR YANG DIUBAHSUAI - LEBIH KECIL DAN LEBIH RINGAN, SENANG UTK DIBAWA KEMANA2.

SILA KE PAUTAN INI UNTUK MELIHAT PELANCAR YANG DIUBAHSUAI klik di sini

Ciri-ciri
1. Boleh digunakan untuk pelancaran roket h2o sasaran dan roket h2o payung terjun
2. Mempunyai injap/valve air keluar
3. Mempunyai injap/valve keluar angin
4. Kaki boleh dilaraskan mengikut sudut yang dikehendaki
5. Sudut boleh diukur menggunakan jangka sudut/Jangka sudut tidak disertakan
6. Alat ganti mudah didapati di kedai hardware
7. Alat ganti murah
8. Insya Allah....Selamat digunakan
9.Jaminan valve angin masuk selama 1 bulan. (cukup ler tuu....he2)


tq

PELANCAR ROKET AIR PADA HARGA PROMOSI TELAH HABIS DIJUAL....HARAP MAKLUM..... HARGA BARU SEKARANG ADALAH : RM 150 TERMASUK KOS PENGHANTARAN (POS LAJU)

Rabu, 28 Oktober 2009

Generasi Pelapis Roket h2o



Gambar ini diambil semasa kejohanan Teknologi Pelancaran Roket Jemputan SMK Maokil kali pertama pada 26/10/2009.



Inilah barisan pelapis yang akan memperkembangkan lagi roket h2o.

Terima kasih diucapkan kepada Cg Normah, Cg Roslee, Cg Haslizan dan guru2 pengiring yang lain kerana membawa pelajar2 pra sekolah dan pelajar2 tahun 6 SK Maokil 2 menyaksikan pertandingan yang dijalankan di SMK Maokil. Pendedahan awal kepada pelajar2 sekolah rendah akan menambahkan minat para pelajar untuk memgetahui dengan lebih mendalam roket h2o.

Kepada pelajar2 tahun 6 SK Maokil 2 tunggu kehadiran cikgu dan fasilitator (pelajar ting 3) yang akan mengadakan bengkel pembinaan roket h2o pada 2/11 nanti.

Selasa, 27 Oktober 2009

Gambar Roket Sasaran

1..2...3.....zooooooom



Roket Sasaran yang baru dilepaskan daripada pelancaran, lihat lah daya tolakan air yang membantu roket h2o terbang kehadapan.



Sayang sekali kebanyakkan roket sasaran yang dihasilkan tidak berjaya memasuki bulatan sasaran (eye's bull) semasa pusingan pertama roket sasaran kejohanan teknologi pelancaran roket jemputan SMK Maokil tapi pada pusingan ke dua ada beberapa roket yang berjaya memasuki bulatan sasaran.

Terima kasih yang tak terhingga diucapkan kepada cg baha, cg subra, cg fadzil dan cg alias yang menjadi hakim serta pembantu-pembantu padang pelajar2 ting 3 dan 4 yang telah bersusah payah membantu cikgu semasa pertanding roket jemputan SMK Maokil kali pertama diadakan. Anda semua memang profesional....and bezz. Tak lupa juga kepada cg zainal yang telah mengambil gambar2 yang menarik semasa pertandingan tersebut berlangsung. Tak lupa juga kepada pengurusan sekolah yang membenarkan program ini berlangsung. Dan akhir sekali kepada peserta2 dan guru pengiring yang sudi untuk bertarung....syabas cg ucapkan.......semoga roket h2o ini akan berkembang dengan pesat khususnya di Segamat dan amnya di Malaysia.....

Hidup roket h2o......

Gambar2 menarik Roket Payung Terjun



Foooyoooo....siap keluar macam berasap lagikan...



Nie ler gambar menarik yang ada pada link di bawah......dan banyak lagi akan di muat naikkan...jadi jangan lepaskan peluang anda untuk melihat gambar2 tersebut

Isnin, 26 Oktober 2009

Gambar pertandingan..

Cikgu akan 'upload' kan gambar2 semasa pertandingan dalaman dan jemputan teknologi pelancaran roket hari ini untuk tatapan semua peminat2 roket air.

Sebahagian gambar yang menarik ada kat sini, klik 'link' di bawah


http://picasaweb.google.com/zainalmzabir/PertandinganPelancaranRoketJemputan2009LaunchOnly

Credit : Utk cg zainal zabir yang mengambil gambar2 semasa pertandingan dan memuatnaik gambar di piscaweb.google.com

Keputusan pertandingan Kejohanan Teknologi Pelancaran Roket Jemputan SMK Maokil kali Pertama Tahun 2009

KATEGORI DALAMAN

Johan Roket Sasaran (jarak dari eye's bull-4.97 m)
1.Siti Nadia Bt Ngatiran
2.Nur Ain Bt Yahya

Naib Johan Roket Sasaran (jarak dari eye's bull-6.6 m)
1.Siti Nurzaharah Bt Mohd Mursani
2.Norul Atikah Bt Noorzin

Tempat ke Tiga Roket Sasaran (jarak dari eye's bull-7.8 m)
1.Mohd Adib B Samsudin
2.Mohd Hafizi B Azahar


Johan Roket Payload (catatan masa - 07.59 s)
1.Nura' Asikin Bt Kamisan
2.Siti Hajar Bt Esa

Naib Johan Roket Payload (catatan masa - 14.04 s)
1.Mohd Adib B Samsudin
2.Mohd Hafizi B Azahar

Tempat Ke Tiga Roket Payload (catatan masa - 16.61 s)
1.Mohd Ikhmal B Katman
2.Mohd Aziz B Mafrodi


Johan Roket Payung Terjun (catatan masa - 44.30 s)
1.Mohd Azam B Ramly
2.Mohd Aidil B Kamidi

Naib Johan Roket Payung Terjun (catatan masa - 28.54 s)
1.Nur Nadiah Bt Shafiie
2.Nur Faseha Bt Zailan

Tempat ke 3 Roket Payung Terjun (catatan masa - 28.26 s)
1.Nor Suhaila Bt Ngatdenan
2.Radin NoorFarahanna Afifi Bt Radin Roslee


KATEGORI JEMPUTAN

Johan Roket Sasaran SMK Maokil (A) (jarak dari eye's bull-2.15 m)
1.Mohd Hanapeze B Md Yusof
2.Wan Mohd Nizam B Wan Esa

Naib Johan Roket Sasaran SMK Bekok ((jarak dari eye's bull-4.27 m)
1.Muhamad Joefeeqa B Saadon
2.Muhamad Jauhari B Turiman

Tempat ke Tiga Roket Sasaran SMK Pemanis (jarak dari eye's bull-4.32 m)
1.Mohd Firaziq B Mohd Firdaus
2.Muhammad Fuad B Daud


Johan Roket Payload SMK Palong (B)(catatan masa - 8.52 s)
1.Nor Amirul Izwan B Mamat
2.Muhammad Qusyairi B Mohd Shah

Naib Johan Roket Payload SMK Seri Kenangan (A)(catatan masa - 14.49 s)
1.Noramira Bt Baba
2.Nur Farahamira Bt Jais

Tempat ke Tiga Roket Payload SMK Maokil (A) (catatan masa - 20.19 s)
1.Mohd Hanapeze B Md Yusof
2.Wan Mohd Nizam B Wan Esa


Johan Roket Payung Terjun SMK Dato Bentara Dalam (A)(catatan masa - 4 minit 08.58 s)
1.Muhamad Ali Ar Ridha B Ramlee
2.Mohd Syafiq Asyraf B Sulaiman

Naib Johan Roket Payung Terjun SMK Maokil (B)(catatan masa - 54.84 s)
1.Mohd Azzree Azzra B Alias
2.Muhd Firdaus B Senawi

Tempat ke Tiga Roket Payung Terjun SMK Seri Kenangan (B)(catatan masa - 52.88 s)
1.Nur Asilah Bt Abd Jalil
2.Siti Nurul Hidayah Bt Abd Salam


JOHAN KESELURUHAN TEKNOLOGI PELANCARAN ROKET KATEGORI DALAMAN
1.Mohd Adib B Samsudin
2.Mohd Hafizi B Azahar

JOHAN KESELURUHAN TEKNOLOGI PELANCARAN ROKET KATEGORI JEMPUTAN-SMK MAOKIL (A)
1.Mohd Hanapeze B Md Yusof
2.Wan Mohd Nizam B Wan Esa



Tahniah kepada yang menang.....cuba lagi pada tahun hadapan bagi yang tak berjaya.

Ahad, 25 Oktober 2009

Hadiah yang bakal di tawarkan kepada pemenang2 Kejohanan Teknologi Pelancaran Roket anjuran bersama SMK Maokil dan Rakan Muda Inovasi Kali Pertama



Nie hadiah yang akan di berikan kepada pasukan yang johan kategori payload, sasaran dan payung terjun peringkat dalaman. Hadiah tempat ke 2 dan ke 3 juga ada disediakan....

Cg ucapkan selamat melancarkan roket... kepada pelajar2 ting 3.



Nie hadiah yang akan di berikan kepada pasukan yang johan kategori payload, sasaran dan payung terjun peringkat jemputan. Hadiah tempat ke 2 dan ke 3 juga ada disediakan sama seperti peringkat dalaman.

Kepada semua peserta jemputan selamat bertanding.....smk maokil meletakkan 2 pasukan yang hebat untuk kategori jemputan ini bagi memberi cabaran kepada peserta2 lain.

Johan keseluruhan peringkat dalaman dan jemputan akan mendapat hadiah di bawah ini. Jadi, buatlah yang terbaik semasa pertandingan tersebut berlangsung untuk mendapatkan hadiah ini.




Selamat berjuang........

Sabtu, 24 Oktober 2009

Kejohanan Teknologi Pelancaran Roket Jemputan Maokil kali pertama

Kepada para peserta pertandingan teknologi pelancaran roket jemputan maokil kali ke 1cikgu ucapkan selamat bertanding pada 26/10 (isnin) nanti....semoga berjaya

Bagi peserta2 dan guru pengiring yang datang dari jauh cikgu doakan semoga semuanya selamat dalam perjalanan ke Maokil dan pulang semula nanti

untuk peserta2 smk maokil, anda memang hebat kerana sanggup membuat latihan setiap hari walaupun terpaksa membetulkan roket yang rosak selepas dilancarkan. Sikap tidak mudah putus asa beginilah yang cikgu2 maokil harapkan kepada anda semua. Anda mesti ingat untuk berjaya bukannya mudah......

Insyallah, kepada pengikut2 blog ini cg akan uploadkan gambar2 semasa pertandingan dan gambar2 roket h2o yang menarik untuk tatapan anda semua nanti, rajin2 lah jenguk blog ini ya........

Roket payload

Saiz kon(nose cone) dan cara lipatan payung sangat memainkan peranan dalam memastikan masa yang di ambil untuk payload mendarat ke bumi paling cepat.

Para pelajar hendaklah kreatif dalam mencuba pelbagai cara lipatan payung. Jika para pelajar memperolehi cara yang paling sesuai untuk lipatan payung sila emailkan kepada cikgu untuk dikongsi bersama2w dalam blog ini.

selamat mencuba..

Jumaat, 23 Oktober 2009

Roket payload

faktor lain yang boleh dikaji dalam menghasilkan roket payload yang baik ialah saiz kon (nose cone) dan juga panjang tali payung terjun yang digunakan.

Pelajar cikgu dah buat beberapa eksperimen dan masa yang diambil setakat ini tidak menunjukkan prestasi yang boleh dikatakan baik( lebih kurang 15 saat lebih masa yang diambil untuk payung terjun mencecah bumi).

Dari segi keselamatan kargo - telur yang digunakan setakat ini menunjukkan prestasi yang baik kerana dari 10 percubaan dilakukan 2 kali shj kargo rosak.

Selamat mencuba...

Khamis, 22 Oktober 2009

Roket payload

Ada ramai pelajar yang bertanyakan tentang bagaimana membina roket payload.

Cara pembinaan Roket payload sama seperti roket paracut(lihat di bahagian roket payung terjun dalam blog ini) cuma yang membezakannya adalah roket payload membawa kargo (sebarang benda - kebiasaannya telur). Kargo ini diikat kepada payung terjun. Semasa pelancaran, kargo diletakkan di bahagian atas roket (di dalam kon/muncung/nose cone). Kargo bersama2 payung akan terpisah daripada roket dan muncung.Payung akan terbuka/kembang dan membawa kargo ini turun secara perlahan-lahan.

Semasa pertandingan, kargo yang jatuh paling cepat dan tidak mengalami sebarang kerosakkan akan dikira sebagai pemenang.

Cabarannya di sini ialah bagaimana nak menghasilkan payung yang mampu membawa turun kargo dengan selamat dan paling cepat? Lakukan eksperimen untuk mendapatkan saiz payung yang sesuai bagi menurunkan kargo dengan selamat dan paling cepat... selamat mencuba, semoga berjaya.

Terkini pertandingan teknologi pelancaran roket

Setakat 21/10/2009 - ada 11 team pelajar ting 3 smk maokil dan 10 team jemputan yang telah mengesahkan penyertaan pada pertandingan 26/10 nanti. Antara yang mengesahkan penyertaan ialah sekolah dari Daerah Btu Pahat (1 team) dan Daerah Pasir Gudang (1 team)

Kepada sekolah2 lain yang mendapat surat jemputan harap dapat memaklumkan secepat mungkin kepada saya melalui hp @ faks borang penyertaan ke sekolah. Penyertaan masih lagi dibuka sehingga hari jumaat 23/10/2009.

Terima kasih..

Ahad, 18 Oktober 2009

IWRA 2ND ANNAL MEMBERSHIP DRIVE

The 2nd annual membership drive for the International Water Rocket Association (IWRA) is being conducted during the month of October 2009. Individuals and groups that are interested in the sport of water rocketry in all its forms are invited to consider joining the IWRA.

Presently, members come from all over the world and all ages. Regardless of where you come from, what your level of enthusiasm is, we encourage you to contact us about becoming a member. The IWRA is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of the safe sport of water rocketry. Our organization is an internet based association to allow for the widest global input into policies that affects the water rocket community. The association also provides an educational resource for the general public in understanding the sport.

In the next year the IWRA will start to provide oversight for competitive water rocketry achievements worldwide. This past year, the association passed an comprehensive Water Rocket Achievement Recognition Guidelines and Peer-Review Process which will provide a level playing field for all water rocket enthusiasts by specifying competitive guidelines and having a peer-review process that has been developed and agreed on by the membership to provide fairness in the establishment of water rocket achievement records.

Please follow the address provided below to learn more about what the IWRA and what the association is doing to advance the sport of water rocketry.

http://www.orgsites .com/tx/icwra/ index.html
klik di sini
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